Location and Area:
Cambodia, which is physically located in Southeast Asia, occupies a total area of 181,035 square kilometers. It is commonly bordered to the north by Thailand and Laos, to the east by Vietnam, to the south by Vietnam and the Gulf of Thailand, and to the west by the Gulf of Thailand and Thailand.
Geographically speaking, Cambodia can be divided into five major regions: the western and northwestern mountains rich in tropical forest, wildlife, diamonds and fruit trees; the northeastern plateau abounding with tropical forest, wildlife, waterfalls, diamonds and magic, and the northeastern valleys suitable for the development of hydro-electric power; the central plain known as a large area of flat land for cultivating mainly rice, corns and beans and for favoring fish; the western and southwestern coastal plain rich in mangrove and popular with tourists who sunbathe on the sandy beaches, and who consume seafood; and the eastern region suitable for rubber cultivation.
Cambodia, a country in Southeast Asia in the southern part of Indochina, covers an area of 181,035 square kilometers and has a population of 13,124764 million (2003 est.). The country’s shape is an almost-square polygon, with Kampong Thom Province as its central point. The country extends 440 kilometers from north to south and 560 kilometers from west to east. This shape makes Cambodia easy for tourists to navigate and poses no difficulties for the development of tourism. Among the 10 member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Cambodia ranks eight in land size and seventh in population. Its geographical location makes Cambodia an easily accessible ecotourism destination for travelers in neighboring countries and other parts of the world. The country is situated geographically between the 10th and 15th parallels north latitude and the 102nd and 108th parallels east latitude.
Boundaries of the Country The borders of Cambodia encompass 2,600 kilometers of which five-sixths are land and one-sixth is costal border. Land Boundaries The Kingdom of Cambodia is bounded on the northeast by the people’s Democratic Republic of Laos, on the east and southeast by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, and on the west and northwest by the Kingdom of Thailand.
Coastal Boundary The coastal boundary of Cambodia is 440 kilometers with medium depth tropical sea, rich in aquatic creatures that are good for aquatic business. In addition, there are beautiful, uninhabited islands, virgin beaches, white sand and fresh air, which are also good for tourism.
Topography of Land Cambodia’s land surface is deep and plain at the middle since it is surrounded by mountain and plateaus. In the southwest lies the coastal area. As regards tourism development, Cambodia is classified by four types of topography:
Plain Area This area covers 25,069 square kilometers. The total population of the plain area is 5,898,305 or about 51.6 percent of the entire population, and the population density is 235 persons per square kilometer, according to the 1998 census. This area consists of 63 districts, 700 communes and 6,414 villages. The capital city of Phnom Penh, as well as Kandal, Kampong Cham, Svay Riend, Prey Veng and Takeo provinces are located in this area. The plain area is the most crowded inhabited by many races of people including Khmer, Chinese, Vietnamese, Cham, Thai, Lao and Westerners. Minority groups including Kuoy and Steang also live in the Krek and Memut distric in Kompong Cham province.
Surrounded Great Lake Tonle Sap Area This area covers 67,668 square kilometers. the total population of the surrounding Great Lake Tonle sap area is 3,505,448 or about 30.7 percent of the entire population of Cambodia, and the population density is 57 persons per square kilometer, according to the 1998 census. It consists of 60 districs, 488 communes and 4,041 villages. The area includes Kampong Thom, Siem Reap, Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, Kampong Chhnang and Oddar Meanchey provinces and Pailin city. The surrounding Tonle Sap area is inhabited by many races of people, including Khmer, Chinese, Vietnamese and Cham. In addition, there are a number of minority hill tribes such as Sa Ochs, Steang and Samre, who inhabit the mountainous area.
Coastal Area Cambodia’s coastal area covers 17,237 square kilometers. The total population living in the coastal area is about 845,000 people, or about 49 persons per square kilometer, according to the 1998 census. It consists of 21 districts, 152 communes and 705 villages. The area includes Sihanoukville, Kampot and Koh Kong provinces, and Kep city. All lie along Cambodia’s southwestern coast, which is 440 kilometers long. Sihanoukville is the mid point of the coastal area. It is 232 kilometers from Phnom Penh. About 80 percent of the population of the coastal area is Khmer, although Cham, Vietnamese, Chinese, Thai and ethnic minorities such Sa Ochs also live here. Most of people living along the coast have a good life. They earn their living by farming and fishing.
The topography of Cambodia’s coastal area is mountainous, plateau, plain, coast, seaside and gulf. There is much sand in this area. Palm oil, rubber, coconuts, pepper, durian and other crops can be grown in this area. It is also rich in varieties of mangrove.
The total length of the Cambodian coastal area has been disputed over the year. The generally accepted length is 440 kilometers, although a 1997 survey by the DANIDA organization set the length at 435 kilometers, while the Oil Authority in 1973 determined the coast to be 450 kilometers long. In Cambodian schools, however, the 440 kilometer figure is used.
Cambodia’s gulf, which divides the country from the Malacca subcontinent, is not very deep, averaging only 50 meters. The maximum depth is 81 meters. The bottom is plain.
There are 60 islands in Cambodia’s coastal waters. They include 23 in Koh Kong province, 2 in Kampot province, 22 in Sihanoukville and 13 in Kep city.
Plateau and Mountainous Area This area covers 68,061 square kilometers. The total population of mountainous and plateau region is 1,189,042 or about 10.3 percent of the country’s entire population, and the population density is 17 persons per square kilometer, according to the 1998 census. It consists of 39 districts, 283 communes and 2,246 villages. The area includes Kampong Speu, Kratie, Stung Treng, Preah Vihear, Rattanakiri, and Mondulkiri provinces.
The mountainous and plateau region is inhabited by many races of people, including Khmer, Chinese, Vietnamese, Laotian, and Thai. In addition, there are 18 minority groups. They include Pnong, Steang, Kraol, Ro Oung, Tumpun, Tmuon, Bruv, Smil, Kuoy, Ar Norng, Charay, Kreung, Roder, Kha, Sa Och, Kachok, Kavet and Lun. Of these minority groups, the Pnong are the largest, comprising about 45 percent of the minority population.
The average temperature is 27-28ºC. It varies up to regions from 20-27ºC during the wet season and from 28-35ºC during the dry season. The climate is comprised of two main seasons affected by the tropical monsoon – the wet season from May to October and dry season from November to April. The cool period lasts from December to January.
The monsoon season may carry some heavy rains but these quite often occur during the late evening and overnight and are unlikely to spoil your enjoyment.
Cambodia has a tropical climate that is warm and humid. In the monsoon season, abundant rain allows for the cultivation of a wide variety of crops and this year round tropical climate makes Cambodia ideal for the tourism industry. Visitors do need not fear natural disasters such as erupting volcanoes or earthquakes, and the country is not directly affected by tropical storms. Cambodia can be visited throughout the year. However those planning to travel extensively by road should avoid the last two months of the rainy season when some countryside roads may be impassable. The climate can generally be described as tropical. As the country is affected by monsoon, it is hot and humid with an overage temperature around 27.C (80.F) but in the dry season it is cool and very much like a European summer. There are two distinct seasons: the Rainy Season and the Dry Season. However, the Dry Season is divided into two sub-seasons, cool and hot and these seasons are: The Rainy season: From June till October 27-35.C (80-95.f) The Dry season (cool): From November till February 17-27.C (80-95.F) The Dry season (Hot): From March till May 29-38.C (84-100.F) Cambodia is one of the few countries that visitors can enjoy all the year round.
The Cambodian currency is Riel that can fluctuate a little if it is compared with a dollar. Riel denominations are 100,000; 50,000; 20,000; 10,000; 5,000; 2,000; 1,000; 500; 200; 100; and 50. Banknotes, which are printed in both Khmer and English, increase in size according to value and are in different colors.
Foreign currencies can be easily changed at airports, hotels or markets, but American dollars are widely accepted in Cambodia. Credit cards are only accepted in banks and main hotels.
All nationalities need to apply for a travel visa, except from the following countries: Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, and Vietnam.
A visa on arrival, valid for a thirty-day stay, is specifically granted at Phnom Penh International Airport, Siem Reap International Airport, and International Border Checkpoints. Visas are also granted at Royal Cambodian Embassy or Consulate abroad. The visa fee for a tourist is US$20, and the visa fee for a businessman is US$25. Visas can be extended at Immigration Department in Phnom Penh City. A free visa (K) is expressly granted to the Cambodian living overseas.
The Royal Government of Cambodia has recently approved E-visas. All you have to do is complete the online application form available at the official website (evisa.mfaic.gov.kh), pay by credit card online, and include uploading a recent passport-size photo in JPEG/ PNG format. The visa will be approved within three business days, allowing you to breeze by that lengthy line and get a jump-start on your holiday.
The E-visa, valid for a thirty-day stay, is available only for a typical tourist visa for a single entry. It is currently not available for nationalities from Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Arab Saudi, Algeria, Sudan, and Sri Lanka. For a business visa, please apply at your nearest embassy or on arrival in all major check points.
Tourists getting such a visa online can enter Cambodia through Phnom Penh International Airport, Siem Reap International Airport, Bavet (Svay Rieng), Cham Yeam (Koh Kong), and Poipet (Banteay Meanchey), and they can exit through these five main points.
Unless you are from Laos, Malaysia, Philippines or Singapore you need a visa. You may obtain your visa upon arrival at the two airports in Cambodia: Siem Reap and Phnom Penh. You will need $20 US cash for a tourist visa and $25 for business. Along with it you will need one passport size photo and your passport must be valid for six month. Everyone who does not hold a Cambodian passport needs a visa to enter the country. (Except Malaysian and Philippines)
- International flight: Each foreigner has to pay US$ 25, and each Khmer person has to pay US$ 18 at Phnom Penh International Airport or Siem Reap International Airport.
Additionally, the child below the age of 12 has to pay US$ 13, and the child below the age of 2 does not need to pay tax on any airports.
- Domestic flight: Each foreigner has to pay US$ 6, and each Khmer person has to pay US$ 5 at Phnom Penh International Airport or Siem Reap International Airport.
Noted: Most of air tickets are include airport tax already
Firstly the Royal Palace was erected in the reign of King Ponhea Yat (1434), and secondly it was erected in the reign of King Norodom (1866). The Royal Palace was formerly called “Preah Barom Reach Veang Chatomuk Mongkul” that meant it was conveniently located at the confluence of four rivers (the Upper Mékong, the Lower Mékong, the Tonlé Bassac and the Tonlé Sap). Nowadays it is only called “Preah Barom Reach Veang”.
The Royal Palace is 402 meters by 435 meters, and its complex is surrounded by a high pagoda-styled compound decorated with the boundary strings.
The Royal Palace is a royal residence now where His Majesty, the King of Cambodia, and the royal families live. In a common word, it is like a small town of royal dynasties.
The Royal Palace is regarded as the symbol of the whole nation, and all the pavilions are adorned and painted with yellow and white colors. The yellow represents Buddhism and the white represents Brahmanism.
The Royal Palace includes magnificent temples built in the traditional style:
Siem Reap Province
Siem Reap covers 10299 square kilometers, It consists of 12 districts, 100 communes and 875 villages:
Angkor Chum District Total Communes: 07 Totals Villages: 84
Angkor Thom District Total Communes: 04 Totals Villages: 25
Banteay Srei District Total Communes: 06 Totals Villages: 27
Chi Kreng District Total Communes: 12 Totals Villages: 147
Krolanh District Total Communes: 10 Totals Villages: 97
Puk District Total Communes: 16 Totals Villages: 154
Prasat Bakong District Total Communes: 9 Totals Villages: 67
Siem Reap District Total Communes: 10 Totals Villages: 76
Sot Nikum District Total Communes: 10 Totals Villages: 113
Srei Snom District Total Communes: 6 Totals Villages: 39
Svay Lea District Total Communes: 5 Totals Villages: 21
Varin District Total Communes: 5 Totals Villages: 25
How to get there!
Distance from Phnom Penh: 314 Km
Using National Road No: 6
Favourite Transportation: Car & Bus
The Siem Reap Province is the cradle of Angkorean civilization and it is a province that offers plenty of opportunity to tourists enthralled by the cultural patrimony. Siem Reap-Angkor is the most attractive landmark in Cambodia in terms of cultural tourism in Southeast Asia.
The Siem Reap Province is conveniently situated 314 km northwest of Phnom Penh, along National Road No 6. It can be reached all year round by National Road No 6 from Phnom Penh Capital, Poipèt Border Checkpoint, Banteay Meanchey Province, Kampong Cham Province and Kampong Thom Province; and by National Road No 5 and 6 from Kampong Chhnang Province, Pursat Province and Battambang Province.
The Siem Reap Province is accessible on direct flights from many major cities in the region including Bangkok, Danang, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh, Paksé, Vientiane, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Hong Kong, Kunming, Taipei, etc. Today there are around 16-20 direct flights per day to Siem Reap, and there will be more direct international flights in the near future. It can also be reached on domestic flights from Phnom Penh (forty-minute flying time) by different types of aircrafts. Seven daily flights between Phnom Penh Capital and Siem Reap Province are operated by four domestic airline companies.
The Siem Reap Province can also be reached by speedboats along the Tonlé Sap and its Lake from Phnom Penh Capital and Battambang Province.
Preah Sihanouk Province
Preah Sihanouk Province is the economic center of a small peninsula that juts into the warm waters of the Gulf of Thailand, and it is a potential coastal province located 230 km and 260 km southwest of Phnom Penh, along the National Road No 4 and No 3 respectively. It is also a Cambodian seaside paradise visited all year round.
It takes about 4 hours to journey from Phnom Penh Capital to Preah Sihanouk Province by a comfortable luxury air-conditioned bus. You will enjoy the wonderful natural view of mountains, forest and valley along the road, which all makes your journey the unforgettable one.
Sihanouk Province covers 868 square kilometers, It consists of 3 districts, 22 communes and 94 villages.
Khan Mitapheap Total Communes: 5 Totals Villages: 19
Khan Stung Hav Total Communes: 3 Totals Villages: 10
Khan Prey Noub Total Communes: 14 Totals Villages: 65
How to get there!
Distance from Phnom Penh: 230 Km
Using National Road No: 4
Favourite Transportation: Car
This province covers a total area of 1,283 sq km with a population of 160,193. The coastal area, including 22 islands, is 119.50 km in length. It is divided into 3 districts (namely Mittapheap, Stung Hav and Prey Nup), 22 communes, and 94 villages.
Its charm results from a harmonious combination of undulating mountains, tropical islands, translucent seawater, glittering sand, swaying palms, tourist spots, and an international seaport along with a mild climate.
The white sandy beach is perfect for relaxing and for sunbathing in the morning after tiring visits to the Angkor area. The tranquil water is excellent for swimming in the evening through the phosphorescent water that gleams like diamonds. Watching the sunset along the coast is the perfect ending to the day. After gazing in admiration, please enjoy yourselves at accommodations and restaurants available in a reasonable price.
All of the main beaches are lined with beach bars and restaurants offering cold drinks, beach umbrellas and chairs, seafood, evening parties, water sports and more.